EOS is an ethereum-based project launched by Dan Larimer (BitShares, Steem, BitUSD).
From the EOS website: “is software that introduces a blockchain architecture designed to enable vertical and horizontal scaling of decentralized applications.” It is meant to be the solution for business dapps that cannot be launched on top of ETH or BTC platforms.
EOS is essentially an operating system with more user-friendly features - accounts instead of addresses, advanced account management and some technical features for more efficiency.
Cryptocurrency that uses tangle instead of blockchain. Tangle is a clever solution to scalability - if you want to broadcast transation you need to verify two more from someone else. This way, the more people (or machines) use IOT to transact the bigger is the scaling capacity of the network.
In reality there are many hiccups in this system, such as the need to reattach addresses, unconfirmed transactions and such. Dev team is very active though.
Non-blockchain cryptocurrency for fast and cheap transactions. Similar value proposition as with Iota but still in development.
Read on medium.com: IOTA vs RaiBlocks
With the ongoing development (ETH fork, sharding for bigger transaction throughput, anonymity) the fundamentals are strong for ETH in 2018.